About muons

Fact 1 :  muon spas créer dans la chambre alors que e- oui

Fact 2 : hozitonal flux is very low combien ? ouai mais c’est combien la proportion de muon en rayonnement cosiqmue? horizontal si possible ?

Fact 3 : dapres les flux, il ya moins de mu en dessou de 0.1 gev, en hirontal ou verticale.  Ne regardan tla courbe de dx, les muon ionise mois queles electron .

on a tjs affaire a des mu de haute enrgie car il perde que peu leur energie, donc font peu dionisation. Il faut comparer cela.quel est le fluxmax en horizntonl, en energie?

En vertical ej sais que c’est 100 Mev


aprés en horizontal on a aussi des muon ssuper enrgetic : (grider)

The highest energy muons that have been recorded with magnetic spectrom-
eters have been detected in near horizontal direction, which is more favor-
able. The reason is simply that very high energy pions emerging from the
first generation of interactions of primaries that enter the earth’s atmosphere
tangentially travel longer in a low density medium than when propagating
vertically. Consequently, for a given pion energy the likelihood for decay,
which is in competition with interaction, is larger in horizontal direction,
thus enhancing the muon flux. These arguments do not apply to directly
produced muons from charmed particles.

At higher energies the muon spectrum is modified by another effect. The
parent particles of muons, chiefly pions and kaons, can either decay or interact
strongly. Which one of the processes will dominate depends on the particle’s
energy and the density of the atmosphere along its trajectory. The latter is
a function of altitude and zenith angle.
In particular, pions and kaons resulting from collisions of primaries that
are incident upon the atmosphere at a zenith angle 0 > 0 ~ propagate along
the same general direction as the primaries. However, they require longer
trajectories and more time to traverse a given column of X = X8 [g cm -2] of
air than vertically propagating particles. This is because the rate of change
of density along an inclined trajectory is smaller per unit path length than
along a vertical trajectory. Consequently, the competition between interac-
tion and decay of pions and kaons of a given energy changes in fa


3.27 legit

Fig 3.77 grider

fig 3.43  b

fig 3.31


muons ne perd son erngie que par ionisation, il ne cree pa de gerbe (a partir de E seulement)

100 mev a la vertical, le pluss petit flux detecbable  entre 300 et 500 mev pour le max flux (facteur de 3 en intensité entre les 2)

a lhorizontal :

1 Gev le plus petit flx



The Cosmic Ray Detector consists of three pairs of scintillator panels for muon detection. Sets A, B, and C (see below) are oriented with the flat surface of the panels horizontally, at 45°, and vertically, respectively. In each pair, the panels measure 4.875 inches (12.4 cm) wide by 8 inches (20.3 cm) long, and the distance between them is 18.5 inches (47.0 cm). The panels are shielded from light with aluminum foil, black plastic sheets, and black tape. When muons penetrate through these panels, chemicals within will scintillate (emit flashes of light). The light emitted passes through the light guide to a photomultiplier tube.
The photomultiplier tube amplifies the signal. The base of the tube is connected to the circuit board (F). The circuit is designed to register one count when it receives a signal from both scintillator panels in a set (pair). This implies that a muon has penetrated through both panels. The digital readout (G) displays the number of muons counted.

The quality is very low because the movie was made in 2001 for web publication (1.5 Mo was big at this time !)

Taille des detecteur et taille de la chambre : c’est encore moins demuons que l’on detecte de facon horizontale